Prompt: MINERVA-II-1 is a container that deployed two rovers, Rover-1A (HIBOU) and Rover-1B (OWL), on 21 September 2018. It was developed by JAXA and the University of Aizu. The rovers are identical having a cylindrical shape, 18 cm (7.1 in) diameter and 7 cm (2.8 in) tall, and a mass of 1.1 kg (2.4 lb) each. They move by hopping in the low gravitational field, using a torque generated by rotating masses within the rovers. Their scientific payload is a stereo camera, wide-angle camera, and thermometers. Solar cells and double-layer capacitors provide the electrical power. The MINERVA-II-1 rovers were successfully deployed 21 September 2018. Both rovers performed successfully on the asteroid surface, sending images and video from the surface. Rover-1A operated for 113 asteroid days (36 Earth days) returning 609 images from the surface, and Rover-1B operated for 10 asteroid days (3 Earth days) returning 39 images from the surface.nThe MINERVA-II-2 container held the ROVER-2 (sometimes referred to as MINERVA-II-2), developed by a consortium of universities led by Tohoku University in Japan. This was an octagonal prism shape, 15 cm (5.9 in) diameter and 16 cm
Prompt: The Uchinoura Space Center (内之浦宇宙空間観測所, Uchinoura Uchū Kūkan Kansokusho) is a space launch facility in the Japanese town of Kimotsuki, Kagoshima Prefecture. Before the establishment of the JAXA space agency in 2003, it was simply called the Kagoshima Space Center (鹿児島宇宙空間観測所) (KSC). All of Japan's scientific satellites were launched from Uchinoura prior to the M-V launch vehicles being decommissioned in 2006. It continues to be used for suborbital launches, and has also been used for the Epsilon orbital launch vehicle. Additionally, the center has antennas for communication with interplanetary space probes.
Prompt: The spacecraft features four solar-electric ion thrusters for propulsion called μ10, one of which is a backup. These engines use microwaves to convert xenon into plasma (ions), which are accelerated by a voltage applied by the solar panels and ejected out the back of the engine. The simultaneous operation of three engines generates thrusts of up to 28 mN. Although this thrust is very small, the engines are also extremely efficient; the 66 kg (146 lb) of xenon reaction mass can change the speed of the spacecraft by up to 2 km/s. The spacecraft has four redundant reaction wheels and a chemical reaction control system featuring twelve thrusters for attitude control (orientation) and orbital control at the asteroid. The chemical thrusters use hydrazine and MON-3, with a total mass of 48 kg (106 lb) of chemical propellant.
Prompt: Hayabusa2 (Japanese: はやぶさ2, lit. 'Peregrine falcon 2') is an asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese state space agency JAXA. It is a successor to the Hayabusa mission, which returned asteroid samples for the first time in June 2010. Hayabusa2 was launched on 3 December 2014 and rendezvoused in space with near-Earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu on 27 June 2018. It surveyed the asteroid for a year and a half and took samples. It left the asteroid in November 2019 and returned the samples to Earth on 5 December 2020 UTC. Its mission has now been extended through at least 2031, when it will rendezvous with the small, rapidly-rotating asteroid 1998 KY26.
Prompt: Hayabusa (Japanese: はやぶさ, "Peregrine falcon") was a robotic spacecraft developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to return a sample of material from a small near-Earth asteroid named 25143 Itokawa to Earth for further analysis. Hayabusa, formerly known as MUSES-C for Mu Space Engineering Spacecraft C, was launched on 9 May 2003 and rendezvoused with Itokawa in mid-September 2005. After arriving at Itokawa, Hayabusa studied the asteroid's shape, spin, topography, color, composition, density, and history. In November 2005, it landed on the asteroid and collected samples in the form of tiny grains of asteroidal material, which were returned to Earth aboard the spacecraft on 13 June 2010.
Prompt: The Galileo and Ulysses Dust Detectors are almost identical dust instruments on the Galileo and Ulysses missions. The instruments are large-area (0.1 m2 sensitive area) highly reliable impact ionization detectors of sub-micron and micron sized dust particles. With these instruments the interplanetary dust cloud was characterized between Venus’ and Jupiter's orbits and over the solar poles. A stream of interstellar dust passing through the planetary system was discovered. Close to and inside the Jupiter system streams nanometer sized dust particles that were emitted from volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io and ejecta clouds around the Galilean moons were discovered and characterized.
Prompt: Laser-hybrid welding is a type of welding process that combines the principles of laser beam welding and arc welding. The combination of laser light and an electrical arc into an amalgamated welding process has existed since the 1970s, but has only recently been used in industrial applications. There are three main types of hybrid welding process, depending on the arc used: TIG, plasma arc or MIG augmented laser welding. While TIG-augmented laser welding was the first to be researched, MIG is the first to go into industry and is commonly known as hybrid laser welding. Whereas in the early days laser sources still had to prove their suitability for industrial use, today they are standard equipment in many manufacturing enterprises. The combination of laser welding with another weld process is called a "hybrid welding process". This means that a laser beam and an electrical arc act simultaneously in one welding zone, influencing and supporting each other.
Prompt: The 12AX7 is the most common member of what eventually became a large family of twin-triode vacuum tubes, manufactured all over the world, all sharing the same pinout (EIA 9A). Most use heaters which can be optionally wired in series (12.6V, 150 mA) or parallel (6.3V, 300 mA). Other tubes, which in some cases can be used interchangeably in an emergency or for different performance characteristics, include the 12AT7, 12AU7, 12AV7, 12AY7, and the low-voltage 12U7, plus many four-digit EIA series dual triodes. They span a wide range of voltage gain and transconductance. Different versions of each were designed for enhanced ruggedness, low microphonics, stability, lifespan, etc.
Prompt: Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial, thermal and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve the desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering, carburizing, normalizing and quenching. Although the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally, heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding.
Prompt: Many elements are often alloyed with steel. The main purpose for alloying most elements with steel is to increase its hardenability and to decrease softening under temperature. Tool steels, for example, may have elements like chromium or vanadium added to increase both toughness and strength, which is necessary for things like wrenches and screwdrivers. On the other hand, drill bits and rotary files need to retain their hardness at high temperatures. Adding cobalt or molybdenum can cause the steel to retain its hardness, even at red-hot temperatures, forming high-speed steels. Often, small amounts of many different elements are added to the steel to give the desired properties, rather than just adding one or two. Most alloying elements (solutes) have the benefit of not only increasing hardness, but also lowering both the martensite start temperature and the temperature at which austenite transforms into ferrite and cementite. During quenching, this allows a slower cooling rate, which allows items with thicker cross-sections to be hardened to greater depths than is possible in plain carbon-steel, producing more uniformity in strength.
Prompt: Material is put on a sinter machine in two layers. The bottom layer may vary in thickness from 30 to 75 millimetres (1.2 to 3.0 in). A 12 to 20 mm sinter fraction is used, also referred to as the hearth layer. The second, covering layer consists of mixed materials, making for a total bed height of 350 to 660 millimetres (14 to 26 in). The mixed materials are applied with drum feeders and roll feeders, which distributes the nodules in certain depth throughout the sinterring machine . The upper layer is smoothed using a leveler. The material, also known as a charge, enters the ignition furnace into rows of multi-slit burners. In the case of one plant, the first (ignition) zone has eleven burners. The next (soaking/annealing) zone typically offers 12 burners. Air is sucked from the bottom of the bed of mixed material throughout the sintering machine. Fire penetrates the mixed material gradually, until it reaches the hearth layer. This end point of burning is called burn through point (BTP). The hearth layer, which is nothing but sinter in smaller size, restricts sticking of hot sinter with pallets. BTP is achieved in a certain zone of sinter machine, to optimize the process, by means
Prompt: High voltage switchgear is any switchgear used to connect or disconnect a part of a high-voltage power system. This equipment is essential for the protection and safe operation, without interruption, of a high voltage power system, and is important because it is directly linked to the quality of the electricity supply.
Prompt: Fusegates are a mechanism designed to provide the controlled release of water in the event of exceptionally large floods. The design consists of free standing blocks (the fusegates) set side by side on a flattened spillway sill. The Fusegate blocks act as a fixed weir most of the time, but in excessive flood conditions they are designed to topple forward, allowing the controlled discharge of water. Multiple fusegates are generally set up side by side, with each fusegate designed to release under progressively extreme flooding, thus minimizing the impact of the floodwater on the river downstream. The System was invented and patented by François Lempérière for Hydroplus (Paris, France), subsidiary of GTM Entrepose. It has been installed on more than 50 dams around the world with sizes ranging from 1 m to more than 9 m in height. Fusegate are typically used to increase the storage capacity of existing dams or to maximize the discharge potential of undersized spillways.
Prompt: soviet propaganda wallpaper of a futuristic armored vehicle in front of a factory with smoke coming out of it, epic light novel cover art, giant towering pillars, steelpunk, inspired by Greg Staples, by Kagaku Murakami, promotional artwork, by Kanō Tan'yū, economic boom, industrial revolution
Prompt: Small to medium-sized drilling rigs are mobile, such as those used in mineral exploration drilling, blast-hole, water wells and environmental investigations. Larger rigs are capable of drilling through thousands of metres of the Earth's crust, using large "mud pumps" to circulate drilling mud (slurry) through the drill bit and up the casing annulus, for cooling and removing the "cuttings" while a well is drilled. Hoists in the rig can lift hundreds of tons of pipe. Other equipment can force acid or sand into reservoirs to facilitate extraction of the oil or natural gas; and in remote locations there can be permanent living accommodation and catering for crews (which may be more than a hundred). Marine rigs may operate thousands of miles distant from the supply base with infrequent crew rotation or cycle.
Prompt: A drilling rig is an integrated system that drills wells, such as oil or water wells, or holes for piling and other construction purposes, into the earth's subsurface. Drilling rigs can be massive structures housing equipment used to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells, or they can be small enough to be moved manually by one person and such are called augers. Drilling rigs can sample subsurface mineral deposits, test rock, soil and groundwater physical properties, and also can be used to install sub-surface fabrications, such as underground utilities, instrumentation, tunnels or wells. Drilling rigs can be mobile equipment mounted on trucks, tracks or trailers, or more permanent land or marine-based structures (such as oil platforms, commonly called 'offshore oil rigs' even if they don't contain a drilling rig). The term "rig" therefore generally refers to the complex equipment that is used to penetrate the surface of the Earth's crust.
Prompt: Besides the bio-air condition of the atmosphere provided mainly by the evapo-perspiration of the plants, and in addition to the electricity generated by the axial wind turbines implanted on the roofs-blade in the funnels, the main energy source will come from the concentrating thermodynamic plant. This will be composed of a collector implanted on the “Abeille Tower” and parabolic helio-static mirrors planted on the Parisian zinc roofs and concentrating towards the collector the sunrays to increase the temperature of a heat transfer fluid. This liquid will be sent in a water heater transforming the water into steam. The steam will make the turbines turn which will pull the alternators producing thus electricity even outside the solar irradiation time, i.e. 24/7.
Prompt: There are many different types of facilities from which offshore drilling operations take place. These include bottom-founded drilling rigs (jackup barges and swamp barges), combined drilling and production facilities, either bottom-founded or floating platforms, and deepwater mobile offshore drilling units (MODU), including semi-submersibles and drillships. These are capable of operating in water depths up to 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). In shallower waters, the mobile units are anchored to the seabed. However, in deeper water (more than 1,500 metres (4,900 ft)), the semisubmersibles or drillships are maintained at the required drilling location using dynamic positioning.