Prompt: Post-Modern Architecture. As a reaction to the austerity and rigidity promoted by Modern architecture, the Post-Modernist architects launched this design movement in the 1960s. The post-modern designs incorporated artistic ornamentation and decorative elements into the building’s façade as opposed to just the clean lines upheld by modernist styles. The Post-modernist style refused to be boxed to just one type so designs often drew inspiration from a mix of architectural styles. For some buildings, this combination often resulted to a somewhat hybrid and whimsical design. The Vanna Venturi House in Pennsylvania, USA designed by Robvert Venturi is one of the first prominent structures of the post-modern architecture movement. Two famous structures designed by architect Frank Gehry, the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain and the Dancing House in Prague are also notable examples. In the UK, the SIS Building and the No 1 Poulty in London are some examples.
Prompt: Neofuturist Architecture. Neofuturism is an architectural style that is seen as a more idealistic approach to the future. The designs increasingly take advantage of new technologies to build seemingly impossible forms and innovative structures that have never been done before. Neofuturist architecture is identified with structures that seem to defy natural physics which were only previously seen in sci-fi movies. One of the best-known architects of Neofuturist architecture is ground-breaking Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid. In 2004, she was the first female architect to be awarded the Pritzker Prize in Architecture which was considered the Nobel Prize in the architecture world. She was also a two-time recipient of the Riba Stirling Prize- the UK’s most prestigious architecture award. Hadid, who passed away in 2016 at the age of 65, was known for her distinctive projects including The New Riverside Museum in Glasgow, Serpentine Sackler Gallery in Hyde Park, the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Stadium in Japan, the 2022 FIFA World Cup Stadium in Qatar, and the Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre in Azerbaijan.
Prompt: Taos Pueblo. Situated in the valley of a small tributary of the Rio Grande, this adobe settlement – consisting of dwellings and ceremonial buildings – represents the culture of the Pueblo Indians of Arizona and New Mexico. This Pueblo Indian settlement in northern New Mexico, consisting of ceremonial buildings and facilities, and multi-storey adobe dwellings built in terraced tiers, exemplifies the living culture of a group of present-day Pueblo Indian people at Taos Pueblo. As one of a series of settlements established in the late 13th and early 14th centuries in the valleys of the Rio Grande and its tributaries that have survived to the present day, Taos Pueblo represents a significant stage in the history of urban, community and cultural life and development in this region. Taos Pueblo has been continuously inhabited and is the largest of these Pueblos that still exist, with its North and South Houses rising to heights of five storeys. Taos Pueblo and the people of the Pueblo itself claim an aboriginal presence in the Taos Valley since time immemorial.
Prompt: Historic Centre of Sheki with the Khan’s Palace. The historic city of Sheki is located at the foot of the Greater Caucasus Mountains and divided in two by the Gurjana River. While the older northern part is built on the mountain, its southern part extends into the river valley. Its historic centre, rebuilt after the destruction of an earlier town by mudflows in the 18th century, is characterized by a traditional architectural ensemble of houses with high gabled roofs. Located along important historic trade routes, the city's architecture is influenced by Safavid, Qadjar and Russian building traditions. The Khan Palace, in the northeast of the city, and a number of merchant houses reflect the wealth generated by silkworm breeding and the trade in silk cocoons from the late 18th to the 19th centuries.
Prompt: Heat Collection - Each Loop draws heat from five Heat Exchangers (HXs) mounted on the Destiny Laboratory, Node-2 & Node-3 as well as cold plates under three DC-to-DC Conversion Units (DDCUs) (one DDCU each on each Loop on the P1/S1 Trusses and two DDCUs each on each Loop on the S0 Truss) and two Main Bus Switching Units (MBSUs) on each Loop on the S0 Truss (see schematic below and Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) for design of these units).
Prompt: In a gravity dam, the force that holds the dam in place against the push from the water is Earth's gravity pulling down on the mass of the dam. The water presses laterally (downstream) on the dam, tending to overturn the dam by rotating about its toe (a point at the bottom downstream side of the dam). The dam's weight counteracts that force, tending to rotate the dam the other way about its toe. The designer ensures that the dam is heavy enough that the dam's weight wins that contest. In engineering terms, that is true whenever the resultant of the forces of gravity acting on the dam and water pressure on the dam acts in a line that passes upstream of the toe of the dam. The designer tries to shape the dam so if one were to consider the part of the dam above any particular height to be a whole dam itself, that dam also would be held in place by gravity, i.e., there is no tension in the upstream face of the dam holding the top of the dam down. The designer does this because it is usually more practical to make a dam of material essentially just piled up than to make the material stick together against vertical tension.
Prompt: Founded in the 5th century and spread over 118 small islands, Venice became a major maritime power in the 10th century. The whole city is an extraordinary architectural masterpiece in which even the smallest building contains works by some of the world's greatest artists such as Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese and others. In this lagoon covering 70,176.4 ha, nature and history have been closely linked since the 5th century when Venetian populations, to escape barbarian raids, found refuge on the sandy islands of Torcello, Jesolo and Malamocco. These temporary settlements gradually became permanent and the initial refuge of the land-dwelling peasants and fishermen became a maritime power. Over the centuries, during the entire period of the expansion of Venice, when it was obliged to defend its trading markets against the commercial undertakings of the Arabs, the Genoese and the Ottoman Turks, Venice never ceased to consolidate its position in the lagoon.
Prompt: In order to increase the offer of housings in Paris, the « Honeycomb Towers » propose to double the height of theses HBM by an architecture leading to the construction of individual mini-houses interlocked the ones to the others. Such as a honeycomb with hexagonal alcoves, this urban implant will offer to the new inhabitants vegetable gardens and suspended orchards repatriating thus in the city the advantages of a rural individual house. Structurally, this hive is supported by a steel structure that descends the loads vertically through the existing chimney ducts crossing the buildings.